Salvador Dalí (Spanish, born May 11, 1904–died January 23, 1989) was a prominent Surrealist artist. Dalí spent his childhood in the Spanish villages of Figueras and Cadaques. He was influenced by Renaissance masters such as Raphaël. Dalí showed artistic talent at an early age, so his parents arranged for him to receive drawing lessons from Impressionist painter, Ramón Pichot. Dalí was a student at Madrid’s Royal Academy of Art, but he never finished school.

In 1925, the artist held his first solo exhibition in Barcelona. Dalí would gain some international recognition in 1928 when the Carnegie International Exhibition showed three of his works, one of which was Basket of Bread. He met Pablo Picasso in Paris that year. In 1929, he became acquainted with André Breton, a key figure of the budding Surrealist movement. The Surrealists followed Sigmund Freud’s theories concerning unconsciousness and the dream state, and used these theories to incorporate imaginative ideas into their works. Dalí’s The Persistence Of Memory is often cited as one of the most important examples of this style.

World War II forced Dalí and his wife to flee Europe. The couple spent most of the 1940s in the United States. New York’s Museum of Modern Art held a retrospective exhibition of Dalí’s work in 1941. He wrote his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí, the following year. Dalí deviated from Surrealism in the 1950s and began painting a more classical series of 19 paintings. These works incorporated topics such as history, religion, and science. Washington, D.C.’s National Gallery holds The Sacrament of the Last Supper, while the Salvador Dalí Museum is home to The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. Dalí not only painted, but also collaborated with other artists in sculpture, photography, and film. Walt Disney collaborated with him on the film Destino, and Alfred Hitchcock commissioned the artist to design a dream sequence for his film Spellbound. Dalí spent the last years of his life in Torre Galatea, Spain. The artist died on January 23, 1989.

Timeline

1904
Born on May 11 in Figueras (near Barcelona), Spain
1921–1922
Studied in Madrid, at the Real Academia de Bellas Arte de San Fernando
1929
First Surrealist film collaboration with director Luis Bunel, Un Chien Andalou (An Adalusian Dog), and was asked to join the Surrealist group, founded by Andre Breton
1940
Moved to the United States
1970
Returned to Spain and built his theatre-museum Dalí in Figueras
1982
Gala died at the age of 88
1983
Created the Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation
1989
Died on January 23

Exhibitions

2013
The Dali Universe, Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Florence, Italy
Dali: Mind of Genius, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
2012
Dali: Mind of Genius, National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan
Salvador Dalí, Oeuvres sur papier 1931 - 1981, Galerie de Messine, Paris
Dali, DTR Modern Galleries, Boston, USA
Salvador Dalí's Twelve Tribes of Israel, GRAM - Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids, USA
2011
Salvador DalÍ, Mind Of Genius, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Art, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Juxtaposing History: Salvador Dalí, the Hebrew Bible, and the Formation of Israel, Cornell Fine Arts Museum, Winter Park, USA
Salvador Dalí, the Surrealist, Opera Gallery, Singapore
The Dali Universe, Museo di Sant’ Apollonia, Venice (Opened May 2011)
Dali: Mind of a Genius, The Art Science Museum at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore
2010
Dalí illustrator: Paper Dreams, Fundacion Canal, Madrid, Spain
Down the Rabbit Hole: The Bizarre Worlds of Salvador Dalí, Susquehanna Art Museum, Harrisburg, USA
Dalí: The Late Work, The High Museum of Art, Atlanta, USA
Dalí au Sommet, Open Air Exhibition, Courchevel, France
2009
Salvador Dali’ in Shanghai, The Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, P.R. China
Dalí Open Air Exhibition, Chateau de Pommard, Bourgogne, France
Salvador Dali: Prints, Sculptures, Ceramics, Museum of Contemporary Art Skopje, Skopje, Macedonia
Salvador Dalí y las revistas, CaixaForum Palma, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
2008
Monet to Dali, First center for the Visual Arts, Nashville, USA
2007
Masterpieces and Beyond, Open Air Exhibition, Hong Kong, P.R. China
2006
Dalí in Singapore, Open Air Exhibition, Ngee Ann City, Singapore
Spanish Painting, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City, USA
2004
Dalí, Seoul Arts Center, Seoul, Korea
L’Univers de Dalí, Chateau Lavardens, Lavardens, France
2003
Dalí: a Journey into Fantasy, Wuhan Urban Planning Exhibition Center, Wuhan, P. R. China
The Dalí Universe, The Beacon, Southgate, Melbourne, Australia
Dalí: a Journey into Fantasy, Shanghai Urban Planning Exhibition Center, Shanghai, P. R. China
2002
The Dalí Universe, Customs House, Sydney, Australia
Dalí: a Journey into Fantasy, China Millennium Monument, Beijing, P.R. China
Dalí: a Journey into Fantasy, Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangzhou (Canton), P. R. China
2001
Palazzo Ferraiuoli - Piazza Colonna, Rome, Italy
Retretti Arts Centre, Savonlinna, Finland
2000
Arken Museum of Modern Art, Dalí, Copenhagen, Denmark
Dalí Scultore Dalí Illustratore, Galleria di Piazza Colonna, Rome, Italy
The Dalí Universe, London, England (2000-2010)
1999
Dalí Scultore Dalí Illustratore, Palazzo dei Normani, Palermo, Italy
Dalí, Colosseum, Essen, Germany
1998
Dalí – Bilder eines Genies, Kant Dreieck, Berlin, Germany
Norrkoping, Sweden
Dalí, Palais Pallavicini, Vienna, Austria (Opening March 1998 of Permanent Exhibition)
Dalí, Meister des Surrealismus, Millerntor Hochhaus im Lichthof, Hamburg, Germany
Dalí, Nürnberg, Egidienkirche, Germany
1997
Dalí, Schloss Heidelberg, Heidelburg, Germany
Halle Münsterland, Münster, Germany
Dalí, Rheingoldhalle-Congress Centrum Mainz, Mainz, Germany
1996
Dalí 500 Meisterwerks, Grosse Orangerie des Schlosses Charlottenburg, Berlin, Germany
Dalí, Neubaukirche der Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Salvador Dalí, Skulpturen & Illustrationen, Palais Palffy, Vienna, Austria
Istituto degli Innocenti, Florence, Italy
Chiesa Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, Italy
Documenta-Halle, Kassel, Germany
Kulturhaus Abraxas, Augsburg, Germany
Palazzo dei Sette, Orvieto, Italy
1995
Dalí Scultore, Dalí Illustratore, Pinacoteca Civica, La Spezia, Italy
Dalí als Bildhauer, Dalí als Illustrator, Grassi Museum, Leipzig, Germany
Scuderie Parco di Miramare, Trieste, Italy
Beurs van Berlage, Amsterdam, Holland
Chiesa San Bartolomeo, Venice, Italy
Dalí Monumental Sculpture, Open Air Exhibition, Place Vendôme, Paris, France
Dalí als Bildhauer, Dalí als Illustrator, World Trade Center, Bremen, Germany
Dalí Sculpteur et Illustrateur, Le Musée de l'Aubette, Strasbourg, France
1994
Dalí, Skulpturen & Illustrationen, Wintergarten Museum, Frankfurt-Am-Main, Germany
Dalí Retrospectif, Le Musée d'Art Moderne, Réfectoire des Jacobins, Toulouse, France
Dalí als Bildhauer, Dalí als Illustrator, Kunsthaller Marstall Schloß, Hamburg-Ahrensburg, Germany
Le Musée de la Collégiale, Chartres, France
Dalí als Bildhauer, Dalí als Illustrator, Kongresshaus Museum, Salzburg, Austria
Dalí Sculpteur et Illustrateur, Le Musée de l'Hôtel de la Cité, Carcassonne, France
Dalí als Bildhauer, Dalí als Illustrator, Alter Banhof, Baden-Baden, Germany
Dalí, Museo Santa Croce, Florence, Italy
Dalí als Bildhauer, Dalí als Illustrator, The Spandauer Zitadelle Museum, Berlin, Germany
1993
Le Musée du Palais de l'Europe, Menton, France
Fondation Deutsch - Musée d'Art Moderne et Contemporain, Belmont-Sur-Lausanne, Switzerland
Dalí Scultore, Dalí Illustratore, Istituto degli Innocenti, Florence, Italy
1992
Dalí Scultore, Dalí Illustratore, Parco Ducale Palazzetto Eucherio Sanvitale, Parma, Italy
Il Mondo fantastico di Salvador Dalí, Chiesa Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, Italy
Le Salon International du Livre et de la Press Palexpo, Geneva, Switzerland
Chiesa San Bartolomeo, Venice, Italy
1991
Dalí Exhibition, Mitsukoshi Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan
Palazzo Lanfranchi, Pisa, Italy
Espace Montmartre, Paris, France (Opening June 1991 of Permanent Exhibition)
Dalí, Museo d'Arte Contemporanea, Villa Croce, Genoa, Italy
1990
Dalí Sculpteur et Illustrateur, Le Palais de la Bourse, Marseille, France
Kunstgalerij Halletoren, Brugge, Belgium
Lokschuppen, Rosenheim, Germany
Musis Sacrum, Arnhem, Holland
Museo di Chiostri di San Eustorgio, Milan, Italy
1989
Dalí Scultore Dalí Illustratore, Accademia Spagnola di Storia Archeologia e Belle Arti, Rome, Italy
Dalí, Scuola Grande San Teodoro, Venice, Italy
Dalí, Galleria Civica d'Arte Moderna, Palazzo dei Diamanti, Ferrara, Italy
Dalí nella terza dimensione, Castello Svevo, Bari, Italy
1941
Retrospective, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA
1928
Third Annual Carnegie International Exhibition, Pittsburgh, USA
1925
First one man show. Barcelona, Spain

Literature

1942
The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí.