Robert Indiana (American, b.1928), born Robert Clark in New Castle, Indiana, adopted the name of his home state as a pseudonym early in his career. After studying at the Art Institute of Chicago, Indiana moved to New York, where he became a prominent member of the Pop Art movement. Indiana defined himself as a “sign painter” because of his preference for iconic images of numbers and letters, often taken from the American signs around him. He is best known for his LOVE paintings and sculptures, which have come to represent peace internationally. Indiana’s interest in politics and social issues, which separates him from other Pop artists, is evident in numerous works, including his YIELD paintings, the Confederacy series from 1965–1966, and the more recent Peace paintings. He is represented by numerous galleries such as Galerie Gmurzynska in Zurich, Switzerland and Paul Kasmin Gallery in New York, NY. In 1978, the artist left New York City to settle on the island of Vinalhaven, near the coast of Maine, where he lives and works today.

Timeline

1928
Born in New Castle, USA
1953–1954
B.F.A., School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, USA
1954
Attended Edinburgh College of Art, Scotland on the George Brown Travelling Fellowship
1956
Moved to New York, USA
1964
Appeared in the Andy Warhol film "Eat"
1970
Recieved Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts Degree from Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, USA
1973
Designed the immensely popular multi-colored "Love" on a United States postage stamp
1977
Awarded Honorary Degree of Doctor of Fine Arts by University of Indiana, Bloomington, USA
1981
Recieved Honorary Doctoral Degree from Colby College, Waterville, USA
Lives and works in Vinalhaven, USA

Exhibitions

2013
Pop Art Accrochage, Fluegel-Roncak Gallery, Nuremberg, Germany
All You Need IS LOVE, Mori Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan
The Pop Object: The Still Life Tradition in Pop Art, Acquavella Galleries, Inc., New York, USA
Now Here is also Nowhere: Part II, Henry Art Gallery, Seattle, USA
Bal Harbour, Rosenbaum Contemporary, Boca Raton, USA
2012
Hope, Contini Galleria d'Arte, Venice, Italy
Robert Indiana: Sculptures, Waddington Custot Galleries, London, England
Robert Indiana: New & Classic Works, Rosenbaum Contemporary, Boca Raton, USA
2011
Robert Indiana: Rare Works from 1959 on Coenties Slip, Galerie Gmurzynska, Zürich, Switzerland
2010
Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville, Jacksonville, USA
2009
Robert Indiana and the Star of Hope, Farnsworth Art Museum, Rockland, USA (solo)
Sculpture: Post-War to Present, Maxwell Davidson Gallery, New York, USA
Von Picasso bis Warhol, Künstlerschmuck der Avantgarde, Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Cologne, Germany
2008
Pressing Issues, Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, USA
Pop and Op, Nassau County Museum of Art, Roslyn Harbor, USA
2007
Art Market Now, The Columns, Seoul, Korea
2006
Life as a Legend: Marilyn Monroe, Boca Raton Museum of Art, Boca Raton, USA
2005
Made in USA – ausgewählte Graphik, Galerie & Edition Bode GmbH, Nuremberg, Germany
Summer of Love Art of the Psychedelic Era, Tate Liverpool, Liverpool, England
Do it yourself - Positionen von den sechziger Jahren bis Heute, Hamburger Bahnhof, Museum für Gegenwart, Berlin, Germany
40 Jahre Galerie Thomas, Galerie Thomas, Munich, Germany
2004
Robert Indiana 66: Paintings and Sculpture, Price Tower Arts Center's, Bartlesville, USA
2003
Letters, Words and Numbers, L & M Gallery, New York, USA
1998
Retrospective, Musée D'Art Moderne Contemporain, Nice, France
1991
Prints Retrospective, Susan Sheehan Gallery, New York, USA
1990
Prints as Process, Baxter Gallery at Portland School of Art, USA
1986
Vinalhaven Press 1985-1986, Portland Museum of Art, Portland, USA
1982
Indiana's Indianas: A 25 Year Retrospective of Paintings and Sculptures from the Collection of Robert Indiana, National Museum of Art, Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC
1978
Art about Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA
1977
Museum retrospective travels to University Art Museum at University of Texas, Austin; Chrysler Museum, Norfolk; Indianapoilis Museum of Art, Indianapolis; Neuberger Museum at State University of New York, Purchase; Art Center, South Bend, USA
1976
Thirty Years of American Art, Brooklyn Museum of Art, Brooklyn, USA
1975
Galerie Denise Rene, New York, USA (solo)
American Art Since 1945, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA
1972
The Modern Image, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, USA
Galerie Denise Rene, New York, USA (solo)
1970
The Prints and Posters of Robert Indiana, New England tour originates at St. Mary's College, Notre Dame; Colby College of Art Museum, Watervill; Currier Gallery of Art, Manchester; Hopkins Center, Dartmouth College, Hanover; Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick; Brandeis University, Waltham, USA
1969
70 Years of American Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA
1968
First one-man museum exhibition travels to the Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia; Marion Koogler McNay Art Museum, San Antonio; Herron Museum of Art, Toledo, USA
Word and Image, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA
1967
Ninth Sao Paulo Bienal, Sao Paulo, Brazil
1966
LOVE Exhibition, Stable Gallery, New York, USA
1966 Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Sculpture, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA
Galerie Alfred Schmela, Düsseldorf, Germany
Museum Haus Lange, Krefeld, Germany
1965
Word and Image, Guggenheim Museum, New York, USA
1965 Annual Exhibition of American Paintings, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, USA
1964
Stable Gallery, New York, USA (solo)
1963
Americans 1963, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA
Exhibits with Richard Stankeiwicz at Walker Art Center, Mineapolis; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, USA
New Realists, Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, USA
1962
Stable Gallery, New York, USA (solo)
1961
The Art of Assemblage, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA

Public Collections

Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld, Germany
Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, CA
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY
Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, CT
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, CA
Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY
Stedelijk Museum, Schiedam, The Netherlands
Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA
Detroit Institute of Art, MI
Allentown Museum of Art, Allentown, PA
Baltimore Museum of Art, MD
Brandeis Museum, Waltham, MA
Albright-Knox Gallery of Art, Buffalo, New York, NY
Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

Literature

2006
Wilmerding John, Pissarro Joachim, Robert Pincus-Witten and Peter Halley. Robert Indiana: The Artist and His Work 1955 - 2005. New York: Rizzoli, 2006.
2000
Ryan, Susan E. Robert Indiana: Figures of Speech. Conneticut: Yale University Press, 2000
Pissarro, Joachim, Depotte, Helene. Robert Indiana: Retrospective 1958-1998. Washington: University of Washington Press, 2000
1999
Indiana, Robert. Love and the American Dream: The Art of Robert Indiana. Portland: Portland Museum of Art, 1999
1992
Sheehan, Susan . Robert Indiana Prints: A Catalogue Raisonne 1951-1991. New York: Susan Sheehan Gallery, 1992
1990
Carl J Weinhardt. Robert Indiana. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990
1969
Indiana, Robert. Robert Indiana: Graphics. Indiana: Department of Art of Saint Mary's College, 1969
1968
Indiana, Robert. Robert Indiana, Conneticut: Falcon Press, 1968