The prolific artistic career of Marc Chagall (French/Russian, born July 7, 1887–died March 28, 1985) spanned over seven decades. Influenced by Cubism and Fauvism, Chagall's oeuvre is consistent in his use of figuration and color. Born in Russia in 1887, Chagall moved to France in 1910, and became an integral member of the École de Paris. He participated in the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d’Automne in 1912. His first solo show was held in 1914 at Der Sturm gallery in Berlin. During a visit to Russia in 1914, Chagall met and later married Bella Rosenfeld, who came to be the subject of many of his paintings, such as Bella with White Collar (1917). Chagall and Rosenfeld were forestalled from returning to Paris because of the outbreak of war. They settled in Vitebsk—Chagall's hometown—where he was appointed Commissar for Art in 1918, and founded the Vitebsk Popular Art School, where he remained as director until his resignation in 1920.

In 1923, Chagall moved back to Paris, and notably formed a friendship with dealer Ambroise Vollard, who commissioned Chagall to draw and paint multiple religious scenes from the Old Testament, and similar sources. In addition to Chagall's Jewish-themed works, such as Green Violinist (1923–1924) and Dancing Mirjam (1931), he often drew inspiration from the Christian Bible. During World War II, Chagall fled to the United States, where he had a retrospective at The Museum of Modern Art in New York, in 1946. He returned to France in 1948, and permanently settled there, yet he would continue to travel for commissions and pleasure throughout the rest of his life. Along with painting, printmaking, and many other media, Chagall is known for his stained-glass windows, like those at the synagogue of the Hadassah University Medical Center in Jerusalem (installed in 1962), and the memorial window Peace (installed in 1964) for the United Nations. A major retrospective of his work was held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 1985; Chagall died the same year at the age of 97 in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France.

Timeline

1887
Born on July 7, Vitebsk, Russia
1907–1910
Studied at the Imperial Society for the Protection of the Arts; Saint Petersburg
1918
Appointed Commissar for Art, founded the Vitebsk Popular Art School
1927
Recognized as a leading painter of the School of Paris and founding member of the Association des Peintres-Graveurs
1939
Awarded first prize by the Carnegie Foundation, Pittsburgh
1948
Awarded the Grand Prix de Gravure at the Venice Biennale
1959
Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters
1965
Awarded an Honorary Degree by Notre-Dame University, Indiana
1977
Awarded the Grand Cross of the Legion d'Honneur
1985
Died on March 28, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France

Exhibitions

2013
Chagall: entre guerre et paix, Musee National du Luxembourg, Paris (solo)
2012
Marc Chagall, Nassau County Museum of Art, NY (solo)
2008
Marc Chagall, MAN - Museo d'Arte di Nuoro, Nuoro
2007
Marc Chagall: The Bible Series, Louisiana Art & Science Museum, Baton Rouge, LA
2006
Marc Chagall, Tale Art Museum, Lillestrom
1985
Marc Chagall: Retrospectives; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia; Royal Academy, London
1983
Oeuvres sur papier exhibition: National Museum of Modern Art, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
1982
Marc Chagall: Retrospectives; Moderna Museet, Stockholm; Louisianer Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaek, Denmark
1977–1978
Marc Chagall: The artist’s work from 1967 to 1977; Musée du Louvre, Paris
1974
Marc Chagall: Retrospective of engraved works (prints); National Gallery, East Berlin and Dresden
1970
Hommage a Marc Chagall; Musee du Grand-Palais, Paris
1967
Marc Chagall: Retrospectives; Zurich, Cologne and the Maeght Foundation in Saint-Paul-de-Vence
1963
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
1959
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Museum of Decorative Arts, Palais du Louvre, Paris
1951
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Jerusalem
1947
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris
1946
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Museum of Modern Art, New York
1942
Artists in Exile; New York
1938
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels
1933
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Kunsthalle Basel, Basel
1926
Marc Chagall: Solo Exhibition; Reinhardt Gallery, New York
1924
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Galerie Barbazanges-Hodebert, Paris
1913
Marc Chagall: Solo Exhibition; Der Sturm Gallery, Berlin
1912
Participated in the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d’Automne; Paris, France

Literature

Nadine NIESZAWER ”Peintres juifs de l’Ecole de Paris 1905-1939” Editions Denoël Paris 2000