Henri Edmond Cross (French, 1856–1910) was a leading Neo-Impressionist painter, a pioneer of Pointillism, and a founding member of the Salon des Indépendants. Born in Douai and raised in Lille, France, Cross studied law before moving to Paris to study at the École des Beaux-Arts. While in Paris, Cross began painting in the studio of François Bonvin (French, 1817–1887), and exhibiting his work at the Salons where he met Claude Monet (French, 1840–1926), Georges Seurat (French, 1859–1891), and Paul Signac (French, 1863–1935). Cross’ interactions with these painters were influential; his palette became more vibrant, his brushstrokes suggested vigorous dabs of color, and his paintings became more entrenched with the atmospheric qualities championed by the Impressionists. Together with Signac, Cross became a proponent of Pointillism, and his compositions became increasingly dictated by Divisionist color theories. Cross later developed debilitating rheumatism, and moved to the Saint-Clair where he continued to work until his death. His works are in collections at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Hermitage in St. Petersburg, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Musée d'Orsay in Paris, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Museum of Modern Art in New York.