Georges Braque (French, born May 13, 1882–died August 31, 1963) was a painter and sculptor, whose crucial contribution to the history of art was his role in the development of Cubism. Born in Argenteuil, Braque grew up in Le Havre, and trained there to be a decorator and house painter, like his father and grandfather. However, he also studied painting at the École des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre from 1897 to 1899. In 1900, Braque moved to Paris to apprentice with a decorator, and subsequently studied at the Académie Hubert until 1904, where he met French artists Marie Laurencin and Francis Picabia. In Paris, Braque was drawn to the work of the Fauves, such as Henri Matisse and André Derain, and the young artist adopted a Fauvist style marked by loosely structured forms and brilliant colors.

Braque was also increasingly influenced by the late landscapes of Paul Cézanne; a 1907 Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d’Automne greatly impacted the direction of the Paris avant-garde, and ushered in the development of Cubism.

Braque’s oil paintings from 1908 until 1913 were marked by an attention to geometry and fragmented perspective, questioning the standards of artistic representation at the time. Braque met Pablo Picasso in the fall of 1907, and began to work closely with him in 1909; the association would accelerate both artists’ explorations of Cubist ideas. Both residents of Montmartre, the two artists produced largely monochromatic paintings of sequential forms, which were, at times, indistinguishable from the other. Braque and Picasso began to experiment with papier collé and collage in 1912. The fruitful collaboration between the two artists continued until the outbreak of World War I in 1914, when Braque left Paris to enlist in the French Army. Severely wounded in the war, Braque resumed painting in 1917.

His highly personal style would continue to evolve for the remainder of his life across media such as paintings, graphics, and sculptures, gradually moving away from the harsher abstractions of Cubism, and incorporating more figurative elements. By the time of his death in 1963, Braque was considered a mentor of the School of Paris, and a leader of Modern Art.

Timeline

1882
Born in Argenteuil-sur-Seine, France on May 13
1897–1899
École des Beaux-Arts, Le Havre
1901
Studied under a master decorator and received his craftsmen certificate
1901
Military service near Le Havre (length reduced to one year for artisans)
1902
Moves to rue Lepic and enrolls in the Académie Humbert, where he meets Francis Picabia and Marie Laurencin
1903
Goes back to the Académie Humbert. He studies the impressionists at the Musée du Luxembourg and in the Durand-Ruel and Vollard galleries
1904
Moves to rue d’Orsel in Montmartre and begins to work exclusively with nature. His first works are influenced by impressionism
1907
March: at the Salon des Indépendants, Braque sells six landscapes created in L’Estaque. This success confirmed his desire to become a painter. In March or April, Braque meets Picasso through the poet Guillaume Apollinaire
1915
Braque was severely wounded in the head in Carency, and undergoes surgery
1923
Creates the stage set for the ballet Les Fâcheux, by Boris Kochno
1925
Moves to his new house in rue Douanier, built for him by the architect Auguste Perret He creates the stage set for Diaghilev’s ballet, Zephyr et Flore
1929
Sets up an atelier in his house in Varengeville-sur-Mer
1937
First Prize, Carnegie International, Pittsburgh, PA.
1947
Aimé Maeght becomes his art dealer and holds an exhibition of Braque’s works from 30 May through 30 June
1963
Died in Paris, France on August 31

Exhibitions

2013
Georges Braque - The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC
L’art en guerre. Francia, 1938–1947: De Picasso a Dubuffet - Museo Guggenheim de Arte Moderno y Contemporáneo, Bilbao
Over, Under, Next: Experiments in Mixed Media, 1913–present - Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC
A Taste for Modernism - Portland Museum of Art, Portland, ME
Correspondences - ms2 – Muzeum Sztuki Lodz, Lodz
Société Anonyme: Modernism for America - Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT
1913: The Year of Modernism - Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ
1913 Armory Show Revisited - International Print Center New York, New York City, NY
Georges Braque - Graphikmuseum Pablo Picasso Münster, Münster
Face And Figure In European Art, 1928-1945 - Kemper Art Museum, Saint Louis, MO
Georges Braque and the Cubist Still Life, 1928–1945 - Kemper Art Museum, Saint Louis, MO
2012
L'Art en Guerre, France 1938-1947 - De Picasso a Dubuffet - Musée d´Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris - MAM/ARC, Paris
Avant-Gardes - The collection of the Triton Foundation - Kunsthal Rotterdam, Rotterdam
Im Netzwerk der Moderne. - Kunsthalle im Lipsiusbau, Dresden
20th Century Masters - Standard Bank Gallery, Johannesburg
Georges Braque Antoni Tàpies - J&P Fine Art, Zurich
From Picasso to Koons. Artist’s Jewellery - Benaki Museum, Athens
2011
Pioneer Of Modernism - Acquavella Galleries, Inc., New York City, NY
La Theogonie de Georges Braque - LaM - Lille Métropole musée d'art moderne, d'art contemporain et d'art brut, Villeneuve d'Ascq
2010
GEORGES BRAQUE - ET SES AMIS - Galerie Siegel-Springmann, Freiburg
Georges Braque - Die Druckgraphik - Kunstmuseum Ahlen, Ahlen
Georges Braque - Arbeiten aus dem graphischen Œuvre und auf Papier - Galerie Boisserée, Cologne
Georges Braque - Die Druckgraphik - Kunsthaus Stade, Stade
2009
Bank-Austria-Kunstforum, Wien, Austria
1991
Das graphisches Werk, Sammlung C. S., Westfälisches Landesmuseum Münster, Germany
1990
Das druckgraphische Werk, Kulturhaus der Stadt Graz, Austria, Kulturamt der Stadt Klagenfurt, Austria, Landessammlungen Rupertinum, Salzburg, Austria
1988
Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung, München, Germany, Solomon-R.-Guggenheim-Museum, New York, USA
1960
Retrospective organized by the Kunsthalle of Basel from 9 April through 29 May
1960
Exhibition of his graphical work at the National Library in Paris.
1957
Exhibition of The Sculpture of Georges Braque at the Cincinnati Art Museum.
1956
Exhibitions in Edinburgh and at the Tate Gallery in London.
1952
September to October: exhibition in Tokyo.
1949
Retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, and the Art Museum in Cleveland.
1945
Exhibitions at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Beaux-Arts building in Brussels
1943
Exhibits 26 paintings and 9 sculptures at the Salon d’automne
1940
Retrospective exhibition in Chicago, Washington and San Francisco
1937
April 3 to 30: exhibition at Paul Rosenberg’s art gallery, including the Duos series
1936
November to December: exhibition at the Fine Arts building in Brussels
1933
9 April to 14 May: first retrospective of Braque’s works at the Kunsthalle in Basel
1924
May 2 to 21: first exhibition at the Paul Rosenberg’s Art Gallery
1908
First exclusive exhibition at Kahnweiler gallery which included a catalogue prefaced by Apollinaire
1907
Cézanne Exhibition at Bernheim-Jeune’s Art Gallery
1906
March: Exhibits seven paintings at the Salon des Indépendants which were later destroyed