Sculptor Constantin Brancusi (Romanian, 1876–1957) is best known for the uniquely reductive, Modernist visual vocabulary he used in sculptures to depict a wide variety of subjects, such as fish, birds, and couples kissing. Born in Hobitza, Romania, Brancusi studied art in his native country as a youth, before leaving for Paris in 1904 to continue his education at the École des Beaux-Arts. There he was invited to work with famed sculptor Auguste Rodin (French, 1840–1917), but declined the offer and decided to work on his own, preferring to use the most reduced forms possible in his sculptures, as opposed the overtly worked exteriors of Rodin’s pieces. In both marble and wood, Brancusi devoted himself to depicting the essence of his subjects through only the most fundamental forms, using ovoid and elliptical shapes to evoke movement, repose, and spiritual qualities. During his mature career Brancusi befriended several of the leading avant-garde artists living in Paris at the time, and began to exhibit his work in Paris, Bucharest, and New York—most famously in the controversial 1913 Armory Show at artist and dealer Alfred Stieglitz’s gallery, 291. In addition to working with marble, Brancusi created several works in wood, which often took the form of specific personages, unlike his marble works. Later in life he traveled throughout Europe, India, and Asia before returning to Paris, where he continued to work until his death in 1957. Brancusi’s work is in the collections of major institutions around the world, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Art Museum of Chicago, the Tate Modern in London, the Centre Pompidou in Paris, and the Museu de Arte Moderna in Rio di Janeiro.

Timeline

1876
Born February 19th in Hobitza, Romania
1894–1898
Studied art at the Scoala de Meserii in Craiova
1898–1902
Attended the Scoala Natzionala de Art Frumoase in Bucharest
1905
Enrolled in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France
1913
Five of Brancusi’s sculptures included in the Armory Show in New York
1914
Represented by Alfred Stieglitz’s gallery “291” in New York
1926
Exhibited solo shows in Wildenstein and the Brummer Gallery in New York
1928
U.S. court determines “Bird in Space” a work of art and exempt from taxing by U.S. Customs
1935
Commissioned by the maharajah Jaswant Rao Holkar II of Indore to build a Temple of Deliverance in the ground of his palace in India
1938
Inauguration of the Tirgu-Jiu Complex in Romania – Brancusi’s only completed monumental complex
1957
Died March 6th in Paris, France

Exhibitions

2006
Sept. 1 - Nov. 12, "Constantin Brancusi Photographer", National Museum of Art in Bucharest
2004
Jan. 29 - May 23, "Constantin Brancusi, The Essence of Things", Tate Modern, London
2004
June 11 - Sept. 19, "Constantin Bracnusi, The Essence of Things". Solomon R. Gugghenheim Museum
1995
April 14 - Aug. 21, "Constantin Brancusi, 1876-1957", Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
1914
March 12 - April 1, "Constantin Brancusi", Little Galleries of Photo-Secession, NY