Anthony Caro (British, 1924–2013) is a sculptor best known for his Abstract constructions made of steel, bronze, lead, and wood. He trained at the Royal Academy Schools in London from 1947 until 1952, while working as an assistant to the sculptor Henry Moore (British, 1998–1986). On a visit to the United States in 1959, Caro met the critic Clement Greenberg, Abstract Expressionist painter Kenneth Noland (America, 1924–2010) and sculptor David Smith (American, 1906–1965). Afterwards, Caro began welding steel into abstract forms and painting them in one primary color. In the late 1960s, Caro created a series of Table Pieces, which resist becoming models for larger works by incorporating tool parts that relate to the scale of the human hand. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Caro was concerned with how empty space and linearity could translate into sculpture. Emma Dipper (1977)—part of a series made of Emma Lake in Saskatchewan, Canada—resembles a steel line-drawing that seems to float in space, without a base and center. Caro avoided complete abstraction by maintaining a connection with the body; his work curves into organic forms, maintains life-size scale, and invites the viewer to walk around to understand the relationship between sculpture and space. His work in the mid-1980s embraced this literalness more fully in work such as Night Movements—a sculpture broken down into four separate parts that asks the viewer to connect these parts—resembling physical movement, into a whole sculpture. His first major show was at the Whitechapel Gallery, London in 1963. Since then, he has held retrospectives at the Museum of Modern Art in New York (1975), Museum of Contemporary Art in Tokyo (1995), and the Tate Britain in London (2005).

Timeline

1924
Born on March 8, New Malden, Surrey, England
1937–1942
Attended Charterhouse School, Godalming, Surrey (During vacations worked in studio of sculptor Charles Wheeler)
1942–1944
Attended Christ's College, Cambridge; MA in engineering (Attended Farnham School of Art during vacations)
1944–1946
Fleet Air Arm of Royal Navy
1946–1947
Regent Street Polytechnic, London; studied sculpture with Geoffrey Deeley
1948
Awarded two silver medals and one bronze medal from Royal Academy Schools for clay figure models, carving and composition. Traveled to France in summer, spending a month drawing, photographing and studying Chartres Cathedral.
1949
Married the painter Sheila Girling (two sons: Timothy, 1951, and Paul, 1958)
1947–1952
Royal Academy Schools, London, where he received a strict academic training (studied and copied Greek, Etruscan, Romanesque, and Gothic sculpture)
1951–1953
Worked as part-time assistant to Henry Moore
1959
Won sculpture prize at Paris Biennale. Visited the United States for the first time on Ford Foundation English Speaking Union Grant; met Kenneth Noland and David Smith, also Robert Motherwell, Helen Frankenthaler, and others.
1963–1965
Taught at Bennington College, Bennington, Vermont
1968
Awarded Honorary Doctor of Letters Degree, University of East Anglia
1969
Appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire
1976
Presented with key of New York City by Mayor Abraham Beame
1953–1979
Taught at St Martin's School of Art, London. Joined Frank Martin, Head of Sculpture Department, in organizing the department and developing the curriculum. Integrateed sculpture and drawings into a single class with a view to understanding rather than copying the subject.
1979
Received Honorary Doctorates from the University of East Anglia and York University, Toronto. Made Honorary Member of American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, New York.
1981
Made Honorary Fellow, Christ’s College, Cambridge. Joins Council of Royal College of Art.
1982
Appointed Trustee of Tate Gallery, London. With Robert Loder founded the Triangle Workshop for sculptors and painters at Pine Plains, New York and participated annually thereafter until 1991. Joined Council of Slade School of Art.
1985
Received Doctor of Letters, Cambridge University
1986
Made Honorary Fellow, Royal College of Art
1987
Awarded Knighthood, Queen’s Birthday Honors. Received Honorary Degree, Surrey University.
1988
Awarded Honorary Foreign Membership of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
1989
Received Honorary Degree, Yale University
1990
Awarded Honorary Degree, University of Alberta, Edmonton
1991
Awarded first Nobutake Shikanai Prize, Hakone Open-Air Museum, Japan
1992
Awarded Honorary Membership, Accademia delle belle Arti di Brera, Milan. Received Praemium Imperiale Prize for Sculpture, Tokyo.
1993
Awarded Honorary Degree, Doctor of Letters, Winchester School of Art
1996
Received Diploma Doctor Honoris Causa, University of Charles de Gaulle, Lille, and Honorary Degree, Durham University
1998
Received Lifetime Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award, International Sculpture Centre, Washington DC and Honorary Fine Arts Degree, Florida International University.
2000
Received the Order of Merit

Exhibitions

2011
Kukje Gallery, Seoul
2011
Exhibition of Large works, The Metropolitan Musuem of Art, New York
2011
Galeria Alvaro Alcazar, Madrid
2010
Exhibition of jewelry at New Arts Centre, Wiltshire
2010
Exhibition of 1980s figure sculptures and drawings at Royal Society of British Sculptors, London and Hillsboro Fine Art, Dublin
2010
Exhibitions of new Upright Sculptures at Annely Juda Fine Art, London; Galerie Daniel Templon, Paris and Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York
2010
Solo exhibition at Galeria Joan Prats, Barcelona
2009–2010
Exhibits with Sheila Girling at Galerie Josine Bokhoven, Amsterdam
2009
Works from the Kenwood Series shown at Galeria Altair, Palma de Mallorca
2009
Joint retrospective with Eduardo Paolozzi at the new Lightbox Gallery, Woking
2008
Recent Galvanised Works, Galerie Daniel Templon, Paris, France
2008
Opening of major permanent commission Chapel of Light at the Church of St Jean Baptiste in Bourbourg, Northern France
2008
The largest retrospective in France held in three museums in Calais, Dunkirk and Gravelines, as well as exhibitions in Angers, Paris and Lille
2008
First solo exhibition in Ireland at Hillsboro Fine Art, Dublin
2008
Exhibition of four figurative heads at National Portrait Gallery, London
2008
Promenade displayed in the Courtyard of Burlington House, Piccadilly, during and after the Royal Academy’s annual Summer Exhibition
2008
The Barbarians shown at Galeria Álvaro Alcázar, Madrid, as part of larger exhibition
2007
Galleri Weinberger, Copenhagen
2007
Joint exhibition with Sheila Girling at the New Arts Centre, Wiltshire
2007
Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York
2007
Annely Juda Fine Art, London, UK
2006
'Anthony Caro', Galeria Altair, Palma de Mallorca
2006
'Anthony Caro – The Barbarians', IVAM, Valencia
2005
'Anthony Caro – Painted Sculpture', Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York
2005
'Anthony Caro', Tate Britain, London
2005
'Anthony Caro', Institut Valencia d'Art Modern, Valencia
2005
‘Anthony Caro’, Galerie Daniel Templon, Paris
2005
'Anthony Caro – Sculpture 1966-1983', Marc Selwyn Fine Art, LA, Daniel Weinberg Gallery, LA, USA
2005
'Anthony Caro', Galeria Metta, Madrid
2005
'Anthony Caro – Edouard Manet', Musée d'Orsay, Paris
2005
'Henry Moore: Epoche und Echo - Englische Bildhauerei im 20. Jahrhundert', Kunsthalle Würth, Künzelsau, Germany
2005
A Life in Sculpture, Scripps College, California; Bentley Projects, Texas and (spring 2006) Garth Clark Gallery, New York
2004
Caro in Focus inaugurates the new Sudhaus galleries at Kunsthalle Würth, Schwäbisch Hall
2004
‘Turning Points: 20th Century British Sculpture’, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art
2004
‘Anthony Caro – The Barbarians’, Seoul Museum of Art, Seoul
2004
‘Anthony Caro 80 jaar – recente sculptuur’, Galerie Josine Bokhoven, Amsterdam
2004
‘Anthony Caro – New Sculpture: The Way It Is’, Kenwood House, London
2004
‘Anthony Caro – A Survey’, C. Grimaldis Gallery, Baltimore
2003
‘The Barbarians, Europa and the Bull and Paper Book Sculptures’, Annely Juda Fine Art, London
2003
'Terrakotta-Arbeiten’ Galerie Lelong, Zurich
2003
‘Anthony Caro, escultures i obra sobre paper’, Galeria joan Prats – Artgrafic, Barcelona
2002
El Judici Final 1995-1999 Fundació Caixa Catalunya, Barcelona
2002
Anthony Caro, ‘L’évolution d’un sculpteur’, Château-Musée de Dieppe, France
2002
Galeria Altair, Palma de Mallorca
2002
‘Anthony Caro. Clay Sculptures’, Galerie Besson, London
2002
Galeria Metta Galeria, Madrid
2002
Galeria Lawrence Rubin, Milan
2001
‘Anthony Caro - Duccio Variations, Gold Blocks and Concerto Pieces’, Marlborough Gallery, New York
2001
‘A Sculptor’s Development - Anthony Caro’, Lewes Town Hall, Lewes
2001
‘Caro at Longside. Sculpture and Sculpitecture’, Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Longside Gallery, Wakefield
2001
‘Architecture in Art’, Crane Kalman Gallery, London
2001
The last judgement, Johanniterhalle de Schwäbisch Hall
2000
‘Sculpture and the Divine’, Winchester Cathedral
2000
‘BLUE: borrowed and new’, The New Art Gallery, Walsall
2000
‘20th Century Steel Sculpture’, Beadleston Gallery, New York
2000
‘Welded: Sculpture of the Twentieth Century’, Neuberger Museum of Art, Purchase College, State University of New York, Purchase, NY
2000
‘Sculptura 2000’, Kasteel Blauwhuis, Izegem, Belgium
2000
‘In Concerto’, Venice Design Art Gallery, Venice, Italy
2000
‘Paint + Steel’, Ameringer Howard Fine Art, New York City
2000
‘Anthony Caro - Nye Skulpturer’, Galleri Weinberger, Copenhagen
1999
XLVIII Biennal de Venice with The Last Judgement
1998
Caro: Sculpture from Painting, National Gallery, London
1997
Abakanowicz, Bourgeois, Caro, Marlborough Chelsea, New York
1996
Un Siècle de Sculpture Anglaise, Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris
1995
Anthony Caro, Museum of Contemporary Art Tokio
1993
Partners, Annely Juda Fine Art, London
1993
Images of Christ, St Paul’s Cathedral, London
1991
Recent work, Tate Gallery, London
1989
Aspects of Anthony Caro, Annely Juda Fine Art, London
1988
Retrospective exhibition, Walker Hill Art Center, Seoul
1988
43th Venice Biennale
1986
42th Venice Biennale
1986
What is Modern Sculpture?, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
1986
Forty Years of Modern Art, Tate Gallery, London
1986
Caro: Sculptures 1971-1985, Galeria Joan Prats, Barcelona
1984
Retrospective exhibition, Serpentine Gallery, London; Kunstmuseum Düsseldorf; Fondation Miro, Barcelona
1983
Aspects of British Art, Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York
1975
Retrospective Exhibition, Museum of Modern Art, New York; Walker Art Center, Mineapolis; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
1972
Sculptura nella Citta, Public Squares, XXXVI, Biennal de Venice
1970
British Painting and Sculpture 1960-70, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC (organised by the Tate Gallery and The British Council)
1969
Retrospective exhibition, Hayward Gallery, London
1969
10th Sao Paulo Biennale
1968
Noland, Louis and Caro, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
1968
Ways of Contemporary Research, Central Pavilion, 34th Venice Biennale
1967
American Sculpture of the Sixties, Los Angeles County Museum
1967
Guggenheim International Exhibition, 1967: Sculpture from Twenty Nations, Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York; shown also during 1968 at the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto; National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa; and the Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal
1967
Pittsburgh International Exhibition of Contemporary Painting and Sculpture, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh
1966
Five Young British Artists, British Pavilion, 33th Venice Biennale (with Richard Smith, Harold Cohen, Bernard Cohen and Robyn Denny)
1965
British Sculpture in the Sixties, Tate Gallery, London
1964
Documenta III, Cassel, Germany
1964
1954-1964: Painting and Sculpture of a Decade, Tate Gallery, London
1964
Anthony Caro: First New York exhibition, Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York
1961
Ten Sculptors, Marlborough New London Gallery, London
1959
First Paris Biennale of Young Artists, Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris
1958
Three Young English Artists, Central Pavilion, 29th Venice Biennale
1958
The Religious Theme, Tate Gallery, London (organised by the Contemporary Art Society, London)
1957
Gimpel Fils Gallery, Londres
1956
Galleria del Naviglio, Milan, Italie
1955
New Sculptors and Painter-Sculptors, Institute of Contemporary Arts, London