Alexander Archipenko (American/Ukrainian, 1964)

Alexander Archipenko (American/Ukrainian, 1887–1964) is celebrated for his Modernist sculptures and paintings, which dynamically combined Cubist and Futurist influences with ancient Egyptian and primitive aesthetics. Born in Kiev, Archipenko studied at the School of Art in Kiev in 1902, before moving to Moscow for two years and then settling in Paris in 1908. He spent two weeks at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts before he left to pursue sculpture on his own, frequently studying the works at the Louvre, although he rejected the styles of Auguste Rodin (French, 1840–1917) and other sculptors popular at the time. While in Paris, he started his own art school while exhibiting his work with the Cubist circle, alongside Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881–1973), Georges Braque (French, 1882–1963), and André Derain (French, 1880–1954). Over the next decade, Archipenko experimented with Cubist, concave, and convex forms in his sculptures, in addition to evoking pre-Columbian, Gothic, and other primitive art in his works. Highly influenced by both Cubist collage and Futurist ideas of volume and architectonic forms, Archipenko developed what he called “sculpto-paintings,” in which two- and three-dimensional forms were incorporated into pieces that explored properties of relief, space, sculpture, texture, and color. Archipenko continued to exhibit his work with Cubist artists throughout the decade, and his work was also featured in the controversial 1913 Armory Show in New York. In 1921, he opened an art school in Berlin, and then opened another in 1923 in New York, where he emigrated with his wife. In the 1920s, he developed the Archipentura, a machine that allowed him to create sequential images, inspired in part by the Futurists, who sparked his interest in combining mechanical, modern forms with artistic production. Archipenko continued to teach, lecture, and exhibit his work throughout the United States, and in later decades created pieces incorporating classical forms with traditional sculptural materials, including bronze and ceramics. Archipenko died in 1964, renowned as a pioneer of Modernist sculpture and multimedia pieces. His works can be found in the collections of the Centre Pompidou in Paris, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, D.C., The Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Tate Gallery in London, and the Kunstmuseum Bern in Switzerland, among many others.

Timeline

1887
Born: Kiev, Ukraine
1902–1905
Studied painting and sculpture at the Kiev art school, Kiev, Ukraine
1910
Opened art school, Paris, France
1912
Founding member of " La Section d'Or"
1921
Opened art school, Berlin, Germany
1923
Moved to the United States, opened art school, New York, NY
1924
Taught summer art school , Woodstock, NY
1929
Became American citizen
1929
Established “Arko,” a school of ceramics, New York, NY
1933
Taught at Mills College, Oakland, CA and at the Chouinard School, Los Angeles, CA
1935–1936
Taught summer sessions at University of Washington, Seattle, WA
1937
Taught at New Bauhaus, Chicago, IL
1938
Opened the Modern School of Fine Arts and Practical Design, Chicago, IL
1956
Taught at University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
1964
Died: in New York, NY

Exhibitions

2008
Alexander Archipenko, Saarland Museum, Saabrücken, Germany (solo)
2006
Alexander Archipenko: Vision and Continuity, Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, MA (solo)
Archipenko 2D/3D: Prints and Sculpture, Musuem of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, FL (solo)
2005
Alexander Archipenko: Vision and Continuity, The Ukrainian Museum, New York, NY (solo)
2004
Refashioning the Figure: The Sketchbooks of Archipenko, Henry Moore Institute, Leeds, UK (solo)
Alexander Archipenko: Unknown Works, Galerie Gmurzynska, Cologne, Germany (solo)
2002
Process and Exploration: Recurring Motifs in the Work of Alexander Archipenko, Eaton Fine Art, Palm Beach, FL (solo)
2001
Alexander Archipenko: Terra Cotta Sculptures, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
1993
Rachel Adler Gallery, New York, NY
1991
Alexander Archipenko: The Sculptor As Printmaker, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
1987
Alexander Archipenko: The Last Decade 1954 - 64, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
1986
Alexander Archipenko: A Centennial Tribute, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C (solo)
1985
Archipenko: Drawings, Reliefs and Constructions, Edith C. Blum Institute, Bard College, Annandale-on Hudson, NY (solo)
1984
Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT
1982
Archipenko: Naturalism of the 1920s and 1930s, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
Archipenko, The Early Works: 1910 - 1921, The Tel Aviv Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel (solo)
1979
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY
Alexander Archipenko 1887 - 1964: The Late Experimental Years, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
1976
Archipenko –Polychrome Sculptures, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
1974
Alexander Archipenko – A Pioneer of Modern Sculpture, Fuji Television Gallery, Tokyo, Japan (solo)
1973
Hayward Gallery, London, UK
1969–1970
The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, MD
Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
1969
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
1967
Alexander Archipenko: A Memorial Exhibition, Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, OH; Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Dallas, TX; Fine Arts Gallery, San Diego, CA; Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, NY; National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, AZ; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN; The Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL (solo)
1964
Galerie Stangl, Munich, Germany (solo)
1963
Centro Culturale S. Fedele, Milan, Italy (solo)
1962
Retrospective, Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Canada (solo)
Perls Galleries, New York, NY (solo)
Drawings and watercolors, Kunsthalle, Mannheim, Germany (solo)
Galerie Wilhelm Grosshennig, Düsseldorf, Germany (solo)
1959
Perls Galleries, New York, NY (solo)
1958
Selections, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
1957
Perls Galleries, New York, NY (solo)
1956
Retrospective, Städtische Kunstsammlung, Düsseldorf, Germany; Charlottenburger Schloss, Berlin, Germany (solo)
1955
Retrospective, Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt, Germany; Städtische Kunsthalle, Mannheim, Germany (solo)
1954
110th Exhibition, Fifty Years Production, Associated American Artists Galleries, New York, NY
1953
Le Cubisme, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, France
Works on paper, El Instituto Guatemalteco-Americano, Guatemala City, Guatemala (solo)
1952
Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Sculpture, Watercolors and Drawings, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY
L’Oeuvre du XXe siècle, Peintures, Sculptures, Musée National D’Art Moderne, Paris, France; The Tate Gallery, London, UK
Sculpture of the Twentieth Century, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA; The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL; The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
1951
Museum of Modern Art, Sao Paulo, Brazil
American Sculpture, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY
1950
Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Sculpture, Watercolors and Drawings, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY
1949
Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA; Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, CA (solo)
1948
New plexiglas works, Associated American Artists Galleries, New York, NY (solo)
1947
The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL
1944
Nierendorf Gallery, New York, NY (solo)
1942
Katherine Kuh Gallery, Chicago, IL (solo)
1941
Katherine Kuh Gallery, Chicago, IL (solo)
1940
We like Modern Art, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY
1939
Katherine Kuh Gallery, Chicago, IL (solo)
1938
Katherine Kuh Gallery, Chicago, IL (solo)
1937
Katherine Kuh Gallery, Chicago, IL (solo)
1932
John Levy Galleries, New York, NY (solo)
1931
The Archipenko Exhibition, Braxton Gallery, Hollywood, CA (solo)
Renaissance Gallery, Montecito, CA (solo)
1929
The Arts Club of Chicago, Chicago, IL (solo)
Contemporary American Sculpture, The California Palace of The Legion Of Honor, San Francisco, CA
Braxton Gallery, Hollywood, CA (solo)
1928
The Anderson Galleries, New York, NY
1924
Kingore Gallery, Societe Anonyme, New York, NY (solo)
1923
Leipziger Kunstverein, Leipzig, Germany (solo)
1922
Galerie van Diemen, Berlin, Germany
Galerie Fritz Gurlitt, Berlin, Germany
Kunstsalon Ludwig Schames, Frankfurt, Germany
1921
Potsdam Museum, Potsdam, Germany
Société Anonyme, New York, NY (solo)
1920
Ukranian Pavillon, Venice Biennal, Venice, Italy (solo)
Salon des Indépendants, Paris, France
1919
Exhibition of French Art 1914 - 1919, Mansard Gallery, Heal & Son, Ltd., London, UK
1914
Salon des Indépendants, Paris, France
Salon des Indépendants, Brussels, Belgium
1913
Armory Show, New York, NY
Salon des Indépendants, Paris, France
Galerie Der Sturm, Berlin, Germany (solo)
1912
Folkwang Museum, Hagen, Germany
Salon des Indépendants XXVIII, Paris, France
Salon d’Automne X, Paris, France
Galerie La Boétie, Paris, France
1911
Salon des Indépendants XXVII, Paris, France
Salon d’Automne IX, Paris, France
1910
Salon des Indépendants XXVI, Paris, France

Literature

2008
Melcher, Ralph (Ed.). Alexander Archipenko. Saabrücken: Saarland Museum, 2008 (catalogue)
2005
Leshko, Jaroslaw. Alexander Archipenko: Vision and Continuity. New York and Kyiv: The Ukrainian Museum with cooperation of Rodovid Press, 2005 (catalogue)